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Jin (Kin) Dynasty ( 1115 - 1234 )

Originating from the Jurchen (Nuzhen) ethnic group, the Jin Dynasty was established by Wanyan Aguda, chieftain of the Jurchen people, at Huining (Acheng City of Heilongjiang Province) in 1115.

As a nomadic tribe, the Jurchen people lived in the watersheds of the Heilongjiang and Songhua Rivers and the Changbai Mountain areas. They lived by hunting and fishing. In the beginning, the Liao Dynasty always asked them for pearls and hunting birds – Peregrine Falcons. In addition, the Liao officials often went to the Jurchen tribe to prey upon the people. The actions of the Liao Dynasty led to the Jurchen people's strong opposition. In the end, the Jurchen people established their own regime, the Jin Dynasty, and destroyed the Liao Dynasty in 1125, allying with the Northern Song Dynasty (960 - 1127).

After routing the Liao Dynasty, the Jin Dynasty began to aim its attentions at the Northern Song Dynasty. In 1127, Emperor Taizong Wanyan Sheng captured Kaifeng and kidnapped Emperors Huizong and Qingzong of the Northern Song. Thereafter, the Northern Song Dynasty collapsed, and the surviving royal members moved to the south and reestablished the Song Dynasty historically named the Southern Song Dynasty (1127 - 1279). Later, the Jin Dynasty continually started wars against the Southern Song Dynasty and the Western Xia Dynasty (1032 - 1227), and finally forced the Southern Song and Western Xia Dynasties to submit to them. Then, the Jin Dynasty came to its peak in the rule of Emperors Shizong and Zhangzong.

However, in the early 13th century, the Mongolian people, who submitted to the Jin Dynasty originally, gradually grew in strength as the Jin Dynasty declined. They didn't pay tribute to the Jin Dynasty any more. Facing that situation, the Jin Dynasty wrongly chose to break off communication with the Western Xia Dynasty and attack the Southern Song Dynasty and the Mongolian People. As a result, the Jin Dynasty was trapped in an isolated condition, with enemies in three directions. The Mongolian army launched wars against the Western Xia Dynasty, and the Jin Dynasty turned a deaf ear to the Western Xia's requests for help. In the end, the Western Xia went over to the Mongolian people to attack the Jin Dynasty together. The Jin Dynasty was thus threatened in the west and north. To lessen the pressure, the Jin Dynasty moved their capital from Huining to Bianjing (Beijing), and adopted the stratagem of giving up the north and plotting against the south. Unluckily, the Jin Dynasty lost their territory to the Mongolian people in the north, and was frustrated by the Southern Song Dynasty in the south. Finally, the Jin Dynasty was destroyed under the converging attack of the Southern Song Dynasty and the Mongolian people in 1234.

 Emperors of the Jin Dynasty and time of their Reigns:
Emperor Taizu 1114 - 1123
Emperor Taizong 1123 - 1135
Emperor Xizong 1135 - 1149
Emperor Shang 1149 - 1161
Emperor Shizong 1161 - 1189
Emperor Zhangzong 1189 -  1208
Emperor Weishaowang 1208 - 1213
Emperor Xuanzong 1213 - 1223
Emperor Aizong 1223 - 1234
Emperor Zhaozong 1234