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Ten States

After the fall of the Tang Dynasty (618 – 907), another fragmentation of the whole country by rivaling warlords began in Chinese history. Five powerful regimes in northern China: the Five Dynasties (907 - 960), coexisted with the 'Ten States' (Former Shu, Later Shu, Wu, Southern Tang, Wuyue, Min, Chu, Southern Han, Jinnan, and Northern Han) in southern China and east of the Yellow River. However, it was a period of conflicts and wars.


Compared with the Five Dynasties in the north, the reign of the Ten States was more stable. For example, the regime of Wuyue had lasted for 85 years, 68 years longer than the longest-lived Later Liang (907 - 923). Except for Northern Han, the other nine regimes were all located in the south and were less affected by wars and chaos in the central plains of China. Many northern Chinese moved to the south to protect themselves from the ravages of wars, bringing with them advanced technologies of production and culture to the south.


 General Information about the Ten States

Former Shu was established in 891 by Wang Jian with Chengdu as its capital, and ended in 925 by Later Tang.


Later Shu was established in 925 by Meng Zhixiang with Chengdu as its capital, and ended in 965 by Northern Song (960 - 1127).


Wu was established in 892 by Yang Xingmi with Yangzhou in Jiangsu Province as its capital, and ended in 937 by Southern Tang.


Southern Tang was established in 937 by Xu Zhigao with Jinling (Nanjing in Jiangsu Province) as its capital, and ended in 975 by Northern Song.


Wuyue was established in 893 by Qian Liu with Hangzhou in Zhejiang Province as its capital, and ended in 978 by Northern Song.


Min was established in 893 by Wang Chao with Fuzhou in Fujian Province as its capital, and ended in 945 by Southern Tang.


Chu was established in 896 by Ma Yin with Tanzhou (Changsha in Hunan) as its capital, and ended in 951 by Northern Song.


Southern Han was established in 905 by Liu Yin with Guangzhou as its capital, and ended in 971 by Northern Song.


Jingnan was established in 907 by Gao Jixing with Jingzhou City in Hubei Province as its capital, and ended in 963 by Northern Song.


Northern Han was established in 951 by Liu Chong with Taiyuan in Shanxi Province as its capital, and ended in 979 by Northern Song.

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